Singalila National Park is located on the The Singalila Ridge of lower Eastern Himalaya, which runs roughly North to South and separates Himalayan West Bengal from the other Eastern Himalayan ranges to the west of it. The two highest peaks of West Bengal, Sandakphu (3630 m) and Phalut (3600 m), are located on the ridge and inside the park. River Rammam and River Srikhola flow through the park.
The park was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1986, and was declared as National Park in the year 1992. The region had long been used as the trekking route from Manebhanjang to Sandakphu (the highest peak of West Bengal) and Phalut.
Singalila National Park played a significant role in the history of Indian wildlife conservation. Even though the national park has a resident Red Panda population of only about 20-25 members, Project Red Panda (funded by the Central Zoo Authority) chose Singalila National Park for reintroduction of Red Pandas from its captive breeding program at the Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park in Darjeeling, mainly due to reasons of proximity. Two females, Sweety and Milli, were released in November 2004. Milli was killed by a leopard, but Sweety adapted to the wild and gave birth to an offspring - the first such successful re-entry for Red Panda.
Flora and Fauna:
The national park covers with Himalayan subtropical pine forests. Thick bamboo, oak, magnolia and rhododendron forest between 2000 and 3600 m also cover the Singalila Ridge. There are two seasons of wildflower bloom in this area - one in spring (March-April) when the Rhododendrons bloom, and another in the post-monsoon season (around October), when the lower forests bloom with Primula, Geranium, Saxifraga, Bistort, Senecio, Cotoneaster and numerous rare orchids. Sandakphu is known as the "mountain of poisonous plants" due to the large concentration of Himalayan Cobra Lilies (Arisaema) which grow here.
Main carnivores species includes Leopard and clouded Leopard. Small carnivores like Leopard Cat is also found here. But Prime attraction of this National park is Red Panda. Other than Red Panda the park has a number of other small mammals including the Himalayan Black Bear, Barking Deer, Serow, Takin, Wild Boar, Yellow-throated Marten and Pangolin.
The park is a birder's delight with over 250 species recorded including many rare and exotic species like Blood Pheasant, Satyr Tragopan, Darjeeling Woodpecker, Eurasian Sparrow hawk, Golden Eagle, Amur Falcon, Maroon Oriole, Rusty-bellied Shortwing, Golden Bush Robin, Mrs. Gould's Sunbird, Brown and Fulvous Parrotbills, Rufous-vented Tit, and Old World babblers like the Fire-tailed Myzornis and the Golden-breasted Fulvetta. The park is also on the flyway of many migratory birds.
The endangered Himalayan Newt frequents the region, and congregates around the lakes of Jore Pokhri and Sukhiapokhri and nearby lakes to reproduce.